This bird is endemic to the tiny, isolated island of Narcondam, located northeast of the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean, and belonging to India. The IUCN lists the species as endangered. Even though its population of around 250 individuals is probably stable, the small area of the island (less than 7 square km.) makes them extremely vulnerable. There is a lighthouse and a police outpost on the island, and the Human population consists of 16 people. In 2014, the Indian government approved the construction of a radar station on the island, which could negatively impact the birds. The Narcondam Hornbill is the smallest member of the wreathed hornbill genus Rhyticeros.